Increased Precautions We're Taking in Response to COVID-19

LAST UPDATED ON 03/15/2021

As updates on the impact of the coronavirus continue to be released, we want to take a moment to inform you of the heightened preventative measures we have put in place at Sonora Behavioral Health Hospital to keep our patients, their families, and our employees safe. All efforts are guided by and in adherence to the recommendations distributed by the CDC.

Please note that for the safety of our patients, their families, and our staff, there are certain restrictions in place regarding on-site visitation at Sonora Behavioral Health Hospital.

  • These restrictions have been implemented in compliance with updated corporate and state regulations to further reduce the risks associated with COVID-19.
  • Options for telehealth visitation are continuously evaluated so that our patients can remain connected to their loved ones.
  • Alternate methods of communication for other services may be offered when deemed clinically appropriate.

For specific information regarding these changes and limitations, please contact us directly.

CDC updates are consistently monitored to ensure that all guidance followed is based on the latest information released.

  • All staff receives ongoing infection prevention and control training.
  • Thorough disinfection and hygiene guidance is provided.
  • Patient care supplies such as masks and hand sanitizer are monitored and utilized.
  • Temperature and symptom screening protocols are in place for all patients and staff.
  • Social distancing strategies have been implemented to ensure that patients and staff maintain proper distance from one another at all times.
  • Cleaning service contracts have been reviewed for additional support.
  • Personal protective equipment items are routinely checked to ensure proper and secure storage.
  • CDC informational posters are on display to provide important reminders on proper infection prevention procedures.

The safety of our patients, their families, and our employees is our top priority, and we will remain steadfast in our efforts to reduce any risk associated with COVID-19.

The CDC has provided a list of easy tips that can help prevent the spread of the coronavirus.

  • Avoid close contact with people who are sick.
  • Cover your cough or sneeze with a tissue and then immediately dispose of the tissue.
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth.
  • Clean and disinfect objects and surfaces that are frequently touched.
  • Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds.
  • Stay home when you are sick, except to get medical care.

For detailed information on COVID-19, please visit

Signs & Symptoms of ODD

Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a disorder that occurs in childhood and is characterized by negative, defiant, disobedient, and often hostile behavior toward adults or other authority figures.

Understanding ODD

Learn More About ODD

Children with ODD often lose their temper, argue with adults, actively defy or refuse to comply with the rules set by adults, and deliberately annoy others. They may blame others for their mistakes or misbehavior, are touchy or easily annoyed, tend to be resentful, and are often spiteful or vindictive. Additionally, these children do not think nor care about the consequences that can potentially result from their behaviors.

Children with ODD will not only display these symptoms at home, but also at school and in the community. Their symptoms are usually more evident in interactions with adults or other individuals that the child knows well. It is common for children with this disorder to not think that they are being defiant and they justify their behavior as a response to perceived unreasonable demands or circumstances.


Statistics of ODD

Oppositional defiant disorder is believed to be one of the most common behavioral disorders diagnosed in children. While its true prevalence is still under debate, it is estimated that 10.2% of children will develop ODD. However, approximately two thirds of children who are given a diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder will overcome their symptoms, with studies showing that 70% of those previously diagnosed with ODD are no longer displaying symptoms by the time they reach the age of 18.

Causes and Risks

Causes and Risk Factors of ODD

To date researchers are unable to conclusively identify one exact cause for the development of oppositional defiant disorder. However, extensive studies have shown that this disorder is most likely the combination of biological, genetic, and environmental factors. The following are some examples of the different causes and factors that may be attributed to the development of ODD:

Genetic: It has been shown that ODD is likely a hereditary condition and that if an individual has a close relative with this mental illness, they have a predisposition to the development of oppositional defiant disorder.

Physical: The presence of oppositional defiant disorder is often associated with changes in the neurotransmitters in the brain. Higher or lower levels of neurotransmitters can cause sudden changes in mood and thinking processes due to the impaired transmission of nerve impulses. These chemical changes are what cause some of the symptoms of ODD like irritability, no fear of punishment, and engagement of hostile behaviors.

Environmental: Environmental factors at home and school play a crucial role in the development of oppositional defiant disorder. Certain situations such as domestic violence, sexual abuse, or poor quality of life can cause ODD in children who have unstable levels of or neurotransmitters or a genetic predisposition to the disorder.

Risk Factors:

  • Dysfunctional home life
  • Repeated exposure to violence
  • Family history of mental illness
  • Family history of substance abuse
  • Lack of parental involvement / inconsistent parenting (e.g. inconsistent discipline)
  • Experiencing abuse and/or neglect
Signs and Symptoms

Signs and Symptoms of ODD

At times it can be difficult to distinguish between a child who is just headstrong or disobedient at times and  one who is experiencing oppositional defiant disorder. Additionally, the signs and symptoms of ODD will vary from child to child, with noted differences in how symptoms present in girls as opposed to how they present in boys. Some examples of the different signs and symptoms that may be present in a child that has oppositional defiant disorder include:

Behavioral symptoms:

  • Excessive arguing
  • Behaving aggressively
  • Refusing to follow rules
  • Frequently throwing temper tantrums
  • Acting hostile towards others
  • Blaming others for their own negative behaviors
  • Seeking revenge, even when unwarranted
  • Blatant and repeated disobedience
  • Intentionally irritating others
  • Is unable to play with other children

Cognitive symptoms:

  • Easily and frequently frustrated
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Not thinking before speaking

Psychosocial symptoms:

  • Low self-esteem
  • Anxiety
  • Rage
  • Frustration
  • Persistent negativity

Effects of ODD

Children who do not receive treatment for their symptoms of ODD may end up suffering from long-term effects that follow them into adulthood. Some examples of these effects may include:

  • Social isolation
  • Difficulty making and keeping friends
  • Substance abuse
  • Development of conduct disorder
  • Severe delinquency
  • Suspension or expulsion from school
  • Academic failure
  • Development of anti-social personality disorder
Co-Occurring Disorders

ODD & Co-Occurring Disorders

Oppositional defiant disorder can occur alongside many different mental illnesses, some which have symptoms that overlap one another. Examples of the most common disorders that co-exist with ODD include:

  • Anxiety disorders
  • Depression
  • Learning and communication disorders
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
  • Bipolar disorder
  • Autism spectrum disorders
  • Intermittent explosive disorder
  • Substance use disorders
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  • and more...

My team of doctors really knew how to take care of me and my oppositional defiant disorder - I will forever be grateful.

– Mike O.

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